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  • L'ancien régime et la Révolution
  • Alexis de Tocqueville
  • English
  • 22 August 2018
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Alexis de Tocqueville ✓ 5 Free download

Summary Ñ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ✓ Alexis de Tocqueville Alexis de Tocqueville ✓ 5 Free download review L'ancien régime et la Révolution Ment Readers will appreciate The Ancien Régime and the French Revolution for its sense of irony as well as tragedy for its deep insights into political psychology and for its impassioned defense of liber. Alexis de Tocueville was a nineteenth century aristocrat and liberal who after visiting the United States of America became so interested in the concept of democracy that he wrote two huge volumes on Democracy in America One of the main themes in this work is the problem of how to combine the struggle for liberty with the struggle for euality Tocueville saw the struggle for euality as a danger to the freedom of individuals Euality reuires a centralized authority to make things eual and combined with the process of democracy leads to a situation in which every individual will be just that an individual This will lead inevitably to a transfer of power to the state and the rule of the majority and hence destroy the personal autonomy of the individualIn the USA according to Tocueville this paradox was resolved by the strong sense of community the state governments but especially the townships were a decent bulwark against the centralizing tendencies of the federal government In Democracy in America 1840 Tocueville concludes that democracy worked in the USA because it could start from scratch democracy in Europe would be an entirely different matter historical developments had already led to very uneual societies in which classes and despots were already presentThe Ancien R gime and the Revolution 1856 explores this last point in relation to France Tocueville delved into the administrative archives to unearth the society of eighteenth century France in order to explain how the French Revolution originated and why also why in France and why at that particular moment 1789So what s Tocueville s answer to these uestions According to him in the eighteenth century there were different strands all intertwining to develop into the explosion we now call the French revolution First feudalism was eroded peasants were landowners and the aristocracy gradually lost all its finances but increasingly gained in power At the same time a middle class developed that gained ever financial power eventually becoming much powerful than the old aristocratic elite France was a strongly stratified society the three classes nobility bourgeouis commoners didn t mingle with and looked unfavourably towards each other During the eighteenth century and really from the reign of Louis XIV in the seventeenth century the French kings increasingly spend and money on wars and because of the decline of the aristocracy gained tremendously in power The result of all these events To finance the expenditures of the French state the king needed taxes Because the administrative and judicial systems were almost exclusively manned by bourgeous and the nobility held exclusive privileges to exemptions from taxes the state increasingly taxed the poorest people the commoners This led to frustration and growing unrestDuring this process the French state centralized and eventually ending up with the situation that just the city of Paris governed the rest of France The countryside and the smaller towns were only peopled by the French without money if you had any money you would build your future in the capital In effect this meant that the nobility ruled the countryside and the towns without being present This strengthened the already ongoing process of alienation of the nobility from the commonersAccording to Tocueville this was a state bound to crumble When Louis XVI tried to reform his administrative system sending many bourgeois officials home he created in one instance a society of individuals in which everyone looked at everyone else with hatred and envy For years the philosophes had inspired a sense of injustice and ineuality in the common people and strangely enough the nobility Just before the Revolution broke out the nobility had tried to help better the situation of the commoners this was also what king Louis XVI tried to do with his reforms So absurdly the Revolution was heralded and if not heralded at least welcomed by the nobility who would be the first ones on the list of the commoners when they got rid of the king The people spurred on by the political ideologies some would say demagogery of the philosophes resented king and nobleman alike and held both accountable for the abominable state they were in And since the Catholic church was in league with the state and derived much power and authority from this relationship they felt strong passions for anticlericalism and antireligiosity And the bourgeois They just went on with their business administering the organs of the state The only thing that really changed was their rulerTocueville claims that the lesson we should learn from this among others is that ideals of euality really democracy and ideals of liberty really autonomy can conflict with each other and clash violently The Ancien R gime digged its own grave by taxing and alienating the masses the poor forced labour military service ever increasing taxation harsh punishments etc The nobility stood by while the bourgeouis just went about their business on their financial ego trip When the situation got so bad that out of sympathy king and nobility wanted to reform the situation the slightest betterment led to immense feelings of unfairness and ineuality by the masses The Ancien R gime already passed the point of no return and according to Tocueville the Revolution was in this sense inevitableOriginally meant as part 1 of a trilogy on the Revolution this is Tocueville s only finished book on the subject He intended to write two subseuent works one detailing how the Revultion progressed and the other explaining what came after it But even though Tocueville didn t manage to write the other two works he succumbed to tuberculosis throughout The Ancien R gime and the Revolution it becomes clear what his viewpoint is He continuously compares the situation after the Revolution with pre Revolutionary eighteenth century France and concludes that nothing really changed The Revolution happened and existing state structures and especially the trend of ever increasing centralization of state power were used as tools by the new regime I continue to be amazed by Alexis de Toceuville s sharp insights and his elouent analyses of the themes of democracy euality liberty and centralization In both Democracy in America and The Ancien R gime and the Revolution the same trends are observed The struggle for euality leads to a situation in which liberty eventually succumbs and a centralized authority emerges Although he was an aristocrat Tocueville seems to have accepted the changing times and he seems to have sympathy for the poor and powerless he also seems to be a true liberal fighting for personal freedom and autonomy and warning us for the potential dangers of democracy He saw Napoleon I as the culmination of all the bad sides of democracy he was thrown in prison because he observed the exact same trend with the rise of the war hungry demagogue Napoleon IIIAmazing thinker amazing book amazing subject Somebody Else Is On The Moon you had any money Sekiro Shadows Die Twice, Official Game Guide you would build Sekiro Shadows Die Twice, Official Game Guide your future in the capital In effect this meant that the nobility ruled the countryside and the towns without being present This strengthened the already ongoing process of alienation of the nobility from the commonersAccording to Tocueville this was a state bound to crumble When Louis XVI tried to reform his administrative system sending many bourgeois officials home he created in one instance a society of individuals in which everyone looked at everyone else with hatred and envy For Operation Warboard years the philosophes had inspired a sense of injustice and ineuality in the common people and strangely enough the nobility Just before the Revolution broke out the nobility had tried to help better the situation of the commoners this was also what king Louis XVI tried to do with his reforms So absurdly the Revolution was heralded and if not heralded at least welcomed by the nobility who would be the first ones on the list of the commoners when they got rid of the king The people spurred on by the political ideologies some would say demagogery of the philosophes resented king and nobleman alike and held both accountable for the abominable state they were in And since the Catholic church was in league with the state and derived much power and authority from this relationship they felt strong passions for anticlericalism and antireligiosity And the bourgeois They just went on with their business administering the organs of the state The only thing that really changed was their rulerTocueville claims that the lesson we should learn from this among others is that ideals of euality really democracy and ideals of liberty really autonomy can conflict with each other and clash violently The Ancien R gime digged its own grave by taxing and alienating the masses the poor forced labour military service ever increasing taxation harsh punishments etc The nobility stood by while the bourgeouis just went about their business on their financial ego trip When the situation got so bad that out of sympathy king and nobility wanted to reform the situation the slightest betterment led to immense feelings of unfairness and ineuality by the masses The Ancien R gime already passed the point of no return and according to Tocueville the Revolution was in this sense inevitableOriginally meant as part 1 of a trilogy on the Revolution this is Tocueville s only finished book on the subject He intended to write two subseuent works one detailing how the Revultion progressed and the other explaining what came after it But even though Tocueville didn t manage to write the other two works he succumbed to tuberculosis throughout The Ancien R gime and the Revolution it becomes clear what his viewpoint is He continuously compares the situation after the Revolution with pre Revolutionary eighteenth century France and concludes that nothing really changed The Revolution happened and existing state structures and especially the trend of ever increasing centralization of state power were used as tools by the new regime I continue to be amazed by Alexis de Toceuville s sharp insights and his elouent analyses of the themes of democracy euality liberty and centralization In both Democracy in America and The Ancien R gime and the Revolution the same trends are observed The struggle for euality leads to a situation in which liberty eventually succumbs and a centralized authority emerges Although he was an aristocrat Tocueville seems to have accepted the changing times and he seems to have sympathy for the poor and powerless he also seems to be a true liberal fighting for personal freedom and autonomy and warning us for the potential dangers of democracy He saw Napoleon I as the culmination of all the bad sides of democracy he was thrown in prison because he observed the exact same trend with the rise of the war hungry demagogue Napoleon IIIAmazing thinker amazing book amazing subject

review L'ancien régime et la RévolutionL'ancien régime et la Révolution

Summary Ñ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ✓ Alexis de Tocqueville Alexis de Tocqueville ✓ 5 Free download review L'ancien régime et la Révolution A Tocueville scholar and an award winning translator Arthur Goldhammer is uniuely ualified for the task In his Introduction Jon Elster draws on his recent work to lay out the structure of Tocueville' argu. Certainly one of the very greatest works of political philosophy in some ways better than Democracy in America Tocueville was fascinated by the phenomenon of social euality after centuries of feudalism and he goes so far as to say that the outward political revolutions and charters of the new post Enlightenment order were already essentially complete as social conditions before these revolutions ever took place The preparation for the French Revolution was simply that men notice men were nearly alike then they had ever been before Hence they simply outgrew their feudal institutions or already had outgrown them and that this process was complete under the ancien regime not under the revolutionary government The political revolts and events historians associte with the revolution are simply not that important because the event was overdetermined If it had not happened this way it would have happened some other way hence any given way though sufficient is hardly necessary to the political philosopher It s a daring thesis It may even be true It may even continue to be true and predictive as Democracy in America was and is The people are the same the arbitrary political and economic differences and privileges appear and the easy they are to strike down with a coup de main to the system from wherever uarter or circumstance that blow may come Tocueville expresses the view that essentially the political stage of the revolution was an act of piue by the new eual man a proto middle class man against such arbitrary privilege of the aristocracy long since degenerated into inbred fops The American revolution Simply the piue of the colonists who already considered themselves Englishmen and were shocked to find out they were not Rejection always precedes anger and revenge What can we learn today from this important and oh so delightfully dangerous wicked book And there are so few truly dangerous books Perhaps our own aristocracy of merit our meritocracy without merit in other words is finally ready to fall The one crucial lynchpin is do people see those possessors of letters behind their names and privileged positions in the institutional structure as truly deserving the ongoing mystiue and fascination that sustained the old feudal aristocracy for centuries or will that meritocracy be revealed as profoundly regressive and unfair or worse will the meritocrats simply be unmasked as no smarter or better than anyone else Tocueville suggests that just such a failure of legitimacy inevitably follows the realization of a profoundly eual social condition suddenly unmasked in this way If only there were some way to do this convincingly for all to see the political and economic reforms and all the rest would be easy to accomplish Really exciting stuff to be recommended to all young revolutionaries Buddhist Modernities young revolutionaries

Summary Ñ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ✓ Alexis de Tocqueville

Summary Ñ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ✓ Alexis de Tocqueville Alexis de Tocqueville ✓ 5 Free download review L'ancien régime et la Révolution This new translation of an undisputed classic aims to be both accurate and readable Tocueville's subtlety of style and profundity of thought offer a challenge to readers as well as to translators As both. To those who study it as an isolated phenomenon the French Revolution can but seem a dark and sinister enigma only when we view it in the light of the events preceding it can we grasp its true significance And similarly without a clear idea of the old order its laws its vices its prejudices its shortcomings and its greatness it is impossible to comprehend the history of the sixty years following its fall p227The Old Regime and the French Revolution written in 1856 is a short book just 206 pages in this edition plus an appendix and endnotes with a contemporary audience in mind Despite this Tocueville s insights and understanding mean that the book is still interesting and provides a model for thinking about revolutions as a wholePart of his intention was to take issue with interpretations of the revolution current in his own time and also to address what he felt were short comings in French political life Primarily the lack of political liberties and the absence of an aristocracy or something very like it some powerful self confident group not dependant on the central authority of the government and able to resist it in the interests of the locality in which they lived and so guarantee libertyTocuevilles view was not that these deficiencies were the result of the Revolution but rather that they and the Revolution itself were the result of long term trends in French history Tocueville was interested in the longue duree long before the annales school His final conclusion is that given the long term tendencies in French history the Revolution was not a sinister enigma but a foregone conclusion Tocueville s key to understanding this was to grasp the mentalite of the pre revolutionary generations Once you are in tune with the Zeitgeist the paradoxes of the pre revolutionary period are resolved This is why the book is valuable What Tocueville is doing is taking down and smashing a simple mental model to explain revolutions in their social and historical contextRevolutions don t occur because the living conditions of people are harsh uite the contrary They occur in his view in times when living conditions have been improving p196 Countries in which serfdom was a complete system did not have revolutions it was the very fact that there were only nonsensical remnants that rankled the peasantry pp52 61 It is not the extent of arbitrary power that is resented but its inconsistency It is not that the state is hated but rather that the idea is wide spread that its power can be used effectively When Tocueville read through the cahiers of complaints submitted to the Estates General what he found was that cumulatively if you followed all the advice and recommendations then the whole of the Old Regime would be swept awayIn other words from Tocueville s perspective it was no surprise that the Soviet Union collapsed under Gorbachev when living conditions were reasonably good but the government made clear through its actions that the way it had been running things was deeply flawed and invited public criticism while it stood firm under Stalin whose government was harsh brutal and did not admit to shortcomingsThat is perhaps one of Tocuevilles central paradoxes that the way that the government itself tried to change and reform undermined faith and confidence in the regime The limits of its effective power were unclear In his image it groped forward until it met opposition before which it would withdraw p133Tocueville is surprised that the writers on economic issues under the Old Regime looked to China as their model of an ideal state But taking into account that impressionistic image of an uncertain hesitant government this makes sense as China was at least in how educated opinion in Eighteenth Century France understood it a uniuely self assured and stable authority wisely governed thanks to a class of civil servants selected through competitive examinations There an articulate body of opinion that did not seek to increase political liberty but instead sought to increase the power and jurisdiction of the central authority p50 and so we should not be taken aback to find that one of the results of the breakdown of the authority of the Old Regime was the creation of a stronger regime that built on the existing centralising tendencies with the result that since 89 the administrative system has always stood firm and amid the debacles of political systemsThe same duties were performed by the same civil servants whose practical experience kept the nation on an even keel through the worst political storms pp219 220 His key point being that the new regime is built out of the material of the old regime and was not an complete and absolute break with the pastWhat strikes Tocueville as new and different about the French revolution is that it was not restricted to France The French Revolution though ostensibly political in origin functioned on the lines and assumed many of the aspects of a religious revolution p42 It looked abroad and sought converts beyond its boarders It had a gospel based on natural and universal principles in his words and sought to propagate it Perhaps this is his final paradox and one that he doesn t fully explore in this exploration of the causes of the collapse of the Old Regime how the ideas developed in a specific local context were assumed to be transformative beyond the limits of France